1. Hearing, to my understanding, is unreceptive while listening, on the other hand, is voluntary. As a matter of fact, we do make choices about what we listen to, which is also known as active listening. It is also an attribute of a good communicator/listener.
2. Schafer primarily refers to sound as noise pollution, and he believes that the keynote of sounds is influenced by nature/climate such as water, wind, birds, and forest. Furthermore, he stresses that noise pollution is caused by people not paying attention, and it is the sound we choose to ignore. Krukowski points out that we orient ourselves by listening to the sounds around us. According to him, earbuds allow people to privatize their personal space in public. Krukowski also discusses the evolution of concert halls throughout history, and how they accommodated halls to absorb unwanted sound for a better listening experience.